Tag Archives | trauma

Advanced Study | Pediatrics Part Seven

Trauma: 20-40% of pediatric deaths due to trauma are preventable. Most common: Falls, then MVA, accidental injury, sports related injury, assaults/abuse. Assessment: ABCs Treatment: IV saline or LR for hypovolemia Head trauma: most common cause of death because their big, heavy heads hit first. Manage airway, O2, intubate as necessary Spinal Trauma: more flexible, lack […]

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Head and Spinal Trauma | Facial Trauma

Head and Spinal Trauma Head injuries kill 50,000 people a year. Head, face neck and spinal injuries are closely related. Maxillofacial Injuries: compromised airway due to significant bleeding/swelling is the biggest threat. With closed injuries to the head, suspect cervical spine and brain injury. Management: Spinal precautions Assess the airway, use suction as necessary Secure/maintain […]

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Thoracic Trauma

Thoracic Trauma Chest Injuries: 16,000 deaths, 20% of all traumatic deaths, second leading cause of trauma death. Rapid transport is their best chance = less than 10 min in the field. Chest Injuries that interfere with Ventilation Clavicle: most commonly fractured bones, usually not significant injury Rib Fracture: most commonly 3 through 8, more likely […]

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Trauma | Electrical & Radiation Burns

Specific Types of Burn Injuries Electrical Burns: Three types: Direct Contact burns – current to skin, Arc injuries – current jumps air to skin. Source, voltage and type of current are invaluable to the attending physicians Entrance Wound Exit Wound Flash burns (no electrical current passes through body) If possible start two large bore IV […]

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Trauma | Inhalation & Chemical Burns

Specific Types of Burn Injuries Inhalation: 20-35% of all patients admitted to burn centers. Happens in closed environments i.e. building, car, plane. Dangers are: Heat Fire consumes O2, none left to breathe Production of Carbon Monoxide and other toxic gases Displaces O2 on the hemoglobin 250x the affinity that O2 has for hemoglobin Supraglottic: thermal […]

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Trauma | Burn Severity

Burn Severity: What is the depth of the burn? Superficial (no blister), Partial thickness (blister), Full thickness (all layers, nerve endings destroyed) What is the extent of the burn? Rule of 9s, or palms UPGRADE CLASSIFICATION if: Are critical areas (the face, upper airway, hands, feet, genitalia) involved? Any other pre-existing medical conditions Is the […]

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Trauma | Burns | Overview

Burns: soft tissue receives more energy than it can absorb without injury: thermal, chemical, electric or nuclear. 10,000 deaths a year. Always perform a complete trauma exam to see if there are other injuries. Damage depends on: Type of Exposure What part of body was exposed Length of contact Three Zones of Intensity Zone of […]

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Types Of Shock

Types of Shock: All types of shock occur due to an underlying lack of tissue perfusion. (Fluid loss, significant vasodilation, pump failure): Four causes of shock Hypovolemic shock – from blood loss or excessive fluid loss Cardiogenic shock – the heart is unable to circulate enough blood volume to maintain adequate tissue perfusion. This can […]

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Stages Of Shock

Shock: body’s response to poor perfusion Barorecepters: sensory nerve endings that sense changes in BP from vaso dilation/constriction Lower BP in response to increased arterial pressure Inhibit medulla Excite vagal center Decrease force of cardiac contraction Increase BP in response to decreased arterial pressure Inhibit vagal center Activate sympathetic nervous system> norepinephrine and epinephrine Chemoreceptors: […]

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