Archive | Trauma

Extremity Trauma

Extremity Trauma is injury to muscles and bones and related tissues from violence, sports, MVA etc. Are seldom life-threatening except for the fractured femur – which may produce severe internal bleeding. “Limb”-threatening means nerve damage or compromised circulation. Fractures: Open – break the bone and the skin Closed – break the bone, not the skin […]

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Abdominal Trauma

Abdominal Trauma Abdominal region is most difficult region to identify problems. Unrecognized abdominal injury is major cause of death in trauma patients. Rapid transport to surgery is their best hope. Abdominal Quadrants and Organs To Consider Blunt trauma: MVAs are the major cause Compression injuries: organ of abdomen crushed between solid objects Shear injuries: rupture […]

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Spinal Trauma

Head and Spinal Trauma Spinal Trauma: work to preserve as much function as possible for the patient. Always care for the patient as if the injury is unstable. Trauma affects vertebrae, ligaments, intervertebral disks and the spinal cord. Mechanisms of Injury: Compression: force directed along axis of spine. Fall on feet, head hit Hyperextension: head […]

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Trauma | Brain Injury

Head and Spinal Trauma Brain Injury: Concussion, contusion, open injuries, hematoma and hemorrhage Signs and Symptoms: Headache Unequal, dilated or nonreactive pupils Loss of consciousness Retrograde amnesia = no recall of events before injury Antegrade amnesia = no recall of events immediately after recovery of consciousness Decorticate posturing = arms flex in to the core […]

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Head and Spinal Trauma | Head & Neck

Head and Spinal Trauma Anterior Neck Trauma: injuries to the base of the neck carry the highest mortality rate. Major vessels, lungs, esophagus, trachea, cervical spine. Laceration of major vessels >>> rapid exsanguinations, or significantly compromise the airway. Assessment: Penetrating Trauma Shock Active Bleeding Tenderness Crepitus Hematoma Pulse deficit Neurological deficit Esophageal tears >>> subcutaneous […]

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Head and Spinal Trauma | Eye Ear & Dental

Head and Spinal Trauma Eye, Ear and Dental Trauma: address life-threatening injuries first Ear: barotitis is caused by changes in barometric pressure. Treatments specific to injury: Direct pressure to lacerations Ice to swelling Cover, protect avulsions Irrigate chemical injuries 2-3 minutes 3 or 4 times Cover traumatic perforations to prevent further contamination Yawn, swallow to […]

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Head and Spinal Trauma | Facial Trauma

Head and Spinal Trauma Head injuries kill 50,000 people a year. Head, face neck and spinal injuries are closely related. Maxillofacial Injuries: compromised airway due to significant bleeding/swelling is the biggest threat. With closed injuries to the head, suspect cervical spine and brain injury. Management: Spinal precautions Assess the airway, use suction as necessary Secure/maintain […]

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Thoracic Trauma

Thoracic Trauma Chest Injuries: 16,000 deaths, 20% of all traumatic deaths, second leading cause of trauma death. Rapid transport is their best chance = less than 10 min in the field. Chest Injuries that interfere with Ventilation Clavicle: most commonly fractured bones, usually not significant injury Rib Fracture: most commonly 3 through 8, more likely […]

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Trauma | Electrical & Radiation Burns

Specific Types of Burn Injuries Electrical Burns: Three types: Direct Contact burns – current to skin, Arc injuries – current jumps air to skin. Source, voltage and type of current are invaluable to the attending physicians Entrance Wound Exit Wound Flash burns (no electrical current passes through body) If possible start two large bore IV […]

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