Archive | Anatomy Physiology

Urinary and Reproductive Systems

Urinary System: The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidney functions to remove metabolic wastes from the blood and excrete them. The also help regulate blood pressure, pH of the blood, and red blood cell production. The basic functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The nephron consists of […]

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Acid Base Balance

Acid Base Balance: Hydrogen is an acid pH = Hydrogen ion concentration, the balance of acid produced and acid eliminated The higher the amount of H, the lower the pH; the lower the amount of H the higher the pH Normal blood pH is 7.35-7.45 Maintain pH with 3 systems: Buffers = chemical sponges. Bicarbonate […]

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Fluids and Electrolytes

Fluids and Electrolytes Water 50-60% of total body weight Intracellular> 45% Extra Cellular> 15%    \ Intravascular/plasma – 10.5% / Interstitial – 4.5% Homeostasis means intake must equal output. Regulation: by the pituitary gland> antidiuretic hormone (kidneys take water back in) by thirst by kidneys Electrolytes: Cations +                     Anions – Sodium                        Chloride Potassium                   Bicarbonate Calcium                       Phosphate Magnesium

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Respiratory System

Respiratory System: bring in the O2 and excrete the CO2. Made up of upper and lower airways. Technically speaking: _ Ventilation is defined as moving CO2 in and out of the lungs _ Oxygenation is defined as moving O2 in and out of the lungs _ Respiration is the whole process together     Oxygen […]

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Lymphatic & Immune Systems

Lymphatic System: Primary function is to absorb fat from the intestines and to trap infectious organisms like bacteria and viruses. Immune System: defends the body from bacteria, virus and other foreign matter. Two types of immunities: _ Non-specific – mechanical barriers (skin), chemicals and leukocytes _ Specific – antigens and cell mediated immunity: lymphocytes (HIV/AIDS) […]

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Heart & Circulatory System

Heart – Circulatory System: heart, blood, and vessels. 8-12 oz. Muscle is called myocardium. Specialized, self contained unit Deoxygenated blood> superior and inferior vena cava> Right Atrium> tricuspid valve> Right Ventricle> semi-lunar valve > pulmonary arteries> lungs Oxygenated blood>pulmonary veins> Left Atrium>bicuspid valve Left Ventricle> semi lunar valve> aorta Cardiac Cycle: Systolic BP – pressure […]

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Blood – Fluid tissue made of cells and plasma Average pH is 7.4, 5 or 6 liters of it _ Red blood cells – erythrocytes, hemoglobin binds/carries O2 and transports it _ White blood cells leukocytes _ Neutrophils – fight bacteria _ Lymphocytes/monocytes – fight virus and fungus _ Eosinophils/basophils – allergic reactions _ Platelets […]

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Endocrine System

Endocrine System: regulates body functions ie. Growth, reproduction, temp, metabolism Hypothalamus Pineal Pituitary> called the master gland Thyroid> growth, calcium maintenance Parathyroid> calcium maintenance Thymus Adrenal> sex hormones, water/salt balance. Epinephrine/Norepinephrine Pancreas (islets) > insulin and glycogen Ovaries/Testes> secondary sex characteristics Feedback Mechanism: _ Hypothalamus Releasing factor _ Pituitary Stimulating factor _ The target gland […]

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